Pühajärve Haridusselts
  Information about visited countries

Poland, officially: The Republic of Poland – a country situated in Central Europe between the Baltic Sea and the Carpathian Mountains. Poland borders on the neighbouring countries, i.e. Germany (west), the Czech Republic and Slovakia (south), Ukraine and Belorus (east), Lithuania (north-east) and Russia (north). In relation to its area, Poland holds 68th position in the world and 9th in Europe. Poland is divided into 16 regions (voivodeships). The date of establishment of Poland is 966 when Mieszko I was christened. Poland became a kingdom in the year 1025 and in the year 1569 established union with Lithuania. During most of its history Poland was an independent, multiethnic and multireligious country. The country existed till 1795 when it’s territory was divided among three conquerors: Prussia, the Russian Empire and Austria (Poland's partition). Poland regained its independence in 1918 after the World War I. During the World War II the country was invaded by The Third Reich and the Soviet Union. The number of casualties of the II World War among Polish citizens is estimated at 6 millions. After the war Poland became a communist republic, under the influence of the Soviet Union. In 1989 comunism in Poland colapsed. Now in our country we have parliamentary democracy and market economy. Poland is a member of the European Union, NATO, ONZ, OECD and WTO.

The Republic of Estonia

In the year A.D. 98, the Roman politician Tacitus, documented Estonia and described the Estonian nation known then as Aestiorum Centes, its customs, clothes and language. Type of Government: Parliamentary Democracy Capital : Tallinn, in the Middle Ages it was one of the largest and most powerful northern European towns situated on the crossroads of the trading route between the Hanseatic League and Russia. The population of Tallinn is about 400 000 nowadays. Total population : 1 400 600 Head of the State : president Toomas Hendrik Ilves Area : 45,227 square km Distance from west to east : 350 km Distance from north to south : 240 km Highest point : Suur Munamägi (Big Egg Hill) 318 m above sea level Islands make one tenth of Estonian territory Official language : Estonian (Finno- Ugric language) The first known and longest preserved book in the Estonian language, the Lutheran catechism, was printed in 1535. The Estonian national flag is tri-colour, blue, black and white. The national bird is barn swallow, the national flower is cornflower , the national stone is limestone Climate : 4 seasons, long and rather cool spring, in summer average temperature is +20C, autumn is usually long, colourful and warm. In winter the temperature sometimes drops to -30C. History : Until the end of the 13th century Estonia developed as a free and independent nationon its long inhabited territory, successfully defending its freedom against foreign conquerers. However, in the 1220’s Estonia was conquered by an alien power and remained under foreign yoke for seven hundred centuries. During different eras, power in Estonia was held by Germans, Denmark, Sweden, Poland and Russia.The first period of the National Awakening which began in the second half of the 19th century, led to National War of Independence in 1918 and the Independent Republic of Estonia on February 24, 1918.The first period lasted until the year 1939 when the USSR occupied the country. The occupation lasted for 50 years until the end of the 1980’s when the second period of of National Awakening started. Estonia regained its independence on August 20, 1991.


NGO Pühajärve Education Society uses for its work the rooms of Pühajärve Basic School at Sihva village. It is a small village with 200 people in the south east of Estonia, 50 km to the university town and the nearest international airport of Tartu, 250 km to Tallinn, 10 km to our winter capital Otepää, 140 km to the capital city of Latvia Riga The area is hilly with lots of lakes between hills and forests. It is a well known tourism area with its footpaths, lakes and skiing tracks. There are two tourism seasons in our area, summer and winter season. In the village Sihva we can find a shop and library. All culture events, sports competitions and concerts take place in the schoolhouse. The NGO Pühajärve Folk School uses the classrooms in the evening. To activate culture life and education in the area the first education society was formed in 1930-s. During the Soviet occupation the society stopped its active life but in 1996 it was started again. Village societies have always played an important part in Estonian country life. For the time being the folk dance group with 16 dancers and brass band form the culture branch of the NGO activities. Another sphere of activity is adult education. In 1997 the first evening classes were opened to teach English, home cooking and computer studies. Ceramics, horticulture, handicraft, German and Russian, project writing skills and tour guiding courses followed in years. From the year 2003 the evening classes have been named Pühajärve Folk School.The HTM licence dates from the year 2003. Ene-Mall Vernik-Tuubel has been the chairman of board since 1996. Ene Kelder has been the head of adult education.


Turkey has boundaries with the neighbouring countries,such as Greece, (212kms/131 miles)and Bulgaria ( 269 kms/167 miles)in the West, Armenia, Georgia, very little part of  Azerbaycan( 610kms/380 miles) and Iran( 454 km/ 280 miles) in the East, Syria (877 kms/540 miles)   and Irag (331kms/205miles on the  south .Turkey is a rectangular shape with a length 1660km/1031 miles and a width of 550 km/341 miles.and is  stretching  between  26 degrees north to 42 degree north, and from 26 east to 45 east.

The city stands on a bay in the Aegean with the peninsula of Guvercin Ada sticking out into the sea at one end, and the mountain of
KazDağı behind. It is 90 km (56 mi) south of İzmir, the region's largest metropolitan center. It is 71 km (44 mi) from the provincial seat of Aydın situated inland. The Yavansu Fault Line passes near Kuşadası and there have been earthquakes here throughout history. The name comes from 'kuş' (bird) and 'ada' (island) as the peninsula has the shape of a bird's head (as seen from the sea). Since Byzantine times it has been known as Ephesus Neopolis, Scala Nuova,[1] becoming Kush-Adasi at the beginning of the 20th century. Some people from the Aegean region shorten the name to Ada

Kuşadası  caters to tourists, arriving by land, and as the port for cruise ship passengers heading to Ephesus. In a controversial deal in 2003 the previously public-owned port was leased to a private company and renovated to attract luxury cruise liners. These range from the huge Grand Princess to smallers tours. Real estate agents sell holiday flats and villas. Among all the ice-cream, carpets, leather, and software, there are bookshops selling books in English, German, Russian and other languages. Old houses near the seafront, some of them converted to bars and cafes, are the remnants of old Kuşadası, which has become a modern-European looking town. The hills behind are built up with big hotels and blocks of holiday flats. The building boom in the late 80s and onwards has been continued into the hinterland of Kuşadası.


PREPARED BY    MAHMUT OKCESIZ- Foreign Affairs Consultant

  Kontakt: Solveig Raave +372 55 987 416  
This website was created for free with Own-Free-Website.com. Would you also like to have your own website?
Sign up for free